Cyber Conflict Factbook 2020

Cyber Conflict Factbook provides students, scholars and policymakers with objective information on operations conducted by states using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Our wish is to support effective prevention and amicable resolution of cyber conflict and tensions in cyberspace through systematic, methodologically coherent and non-biased analysis and understanding of the causes and enablers of cyber operations.

The first (2019) edition of the Factbook focused on “effect-creating” cyber operations, covering state-sponsored cyber operations that are publicly known to have resulted in observable changes in the condition or behavior of the targeted or affected system(s). The material of the first edition has been updated and expanded. We have included information about publicly known technical details of the operations, legal assessment and additional reading materials.

In the 2020 edition of the Factbook, we have additionally documented cyber operations that in our assessment affect wider confidence in information and communication technologies (ICTs) or the services they provide. Trust is hardly an independent or tangible element of international affairs. However, especially in the context of ICTs, trust constitutes an essential aspect of desirable developments and conditions. Peace and security, stability, crisis management, national development and prosperity are based on confidence in or reliance on other entities. In turn, lack of trust and positive confidence erodes unity and shared values. International atmosphere of trust is achieved thorough mutually respectful and cooperative behaviour.

You can download the book from here.

This work has been made possible by Microsoft N.V. and many good friends and colleagues – thank you!

Eneken Tikk, Kristine Hovhannisyan, Mika Kerttunen (authors)

P.S. We would be much interested in any feedback – comments, questions, additional references you may have. Please contact Eneken Tikk ( with those!